Several Supreme Court decisions also bolstered their efforts by upholding traditional Southern views of the appropriate balance between national and state power. The breakaway country was immediately recognized by President Theodore Roosevelt. In a period of less than 50 years it was transformed from a rural republic to an urban nation. In 1830 only one of every 15 Americans lived in communities of 8,000 or more; in 1860 the ratio was nearly one in every six; and in 1890 three in every 10. Custer and his men were completely annihilated. 日本の人口は、2020年5月1日時点では概算値で1億2,590万人。出生率の低下と人口の減少が問題になっています。一方アメリカの人口は、2019年の推計で3億2,906万人。日本と同じく出生率は低下していますが、人口は増加しています。少し不思議に感じるかもしれませんが、人口の増加や減少は将来の経済成長にも関係があります。日本やアメリカの株式に投資したいと考えている場合など、その動向に興味を持っている方も多いでしょう。ここではアメリカの人口と、経済成長の動向について解説していきたいと思います。, 人口と経済成長の関係を見る前に、経済成長についておさらいしておきましょう。経済成長というのは、文字通り経済の規模が拡大していくことです。そして経済の規模を測る指標としては、国内総生産（GDP）が主に使われます。GDPとは、国内に居住する人が、生産活動を通して生み出した付加価値の総額。ある国に住む人が、仕事などを通じて財やサービスを生産し、市場で売買されることで増加していくものです。, そこで問題となるのが、経済成長の要因。経済が成長するために必要なものとしては、下記の3つが挙げられます。, 人口と関係があるのは、「労働力の増加」。人口が増えると働く人も増え、経済の成長につながると言えるでしょう。アメリカの人口が増えていけば、経済成長にプラスの影響があります。, また「資本ストックの蓄積」というのは、工場の建設や機械の導入が進むことです。この「資本ストックの蓄積」と「技術進歩」は、「一人当たりの実質 GDP（労働生産性）」に影響を与えます。人口が増え、それに加え労働生産性も上がれば、より力強い経済成長が望めるでしょう。もし人口が減ったとした場合労働生産性の上昇でカバーできれば、経済成長を維持できるという見方もできます。, 楽天証券は低コストではじめられる、続けられる資産運用のサポートが特徴。
Conflicts with the Plains Indians worsened after an incident where the Dakota (part of the Sioux nation), declaring war against the U.S. government because of long-standing grievances, killed five white settlers. 企業間の自由な競争がおこなわれている それぞれをカンタンに説明していきますね。 まず、資本主義によって経済を動かしている社会では、人々は「資本家」と「労働者」という2つ … The months of laborious travel hitherto separating the two oceans was now cut to about six days. Within a few years, he had organized or had stock in companies making iron bridges, rails, and locomotives. In 1887 the Dawes (General Allotment) Act reversed U.S. Native-American policy, permitting the president to divide up tribal land and parcel out 65 hectares of land to each head of a family. The first great rush of population to the Far West was drawn to the mountainous regions, where gold was found in California in 1848, in Colorado and Nevada 10 years later, in Montana and Wyoming in the 1860s, and in the Black Hills of the Dakota country in the 1870s. However, Japan and various European nations had acquired established spheres of influence there in the form of naval bases, leased territories, monopolistic trade rights, and exclusive concessions for investing in railway construction and mining. Primarily for the sake of American good will, Great Britain, Germany, and lesser colonial powers formally affirmed the Open Door policy and Chinese independence. There he found and exported to his homeland the rust- and drought-resistant winter wheat that now accounts for more than half the U.S. wheat crop. His business, allied with a dozen others, commanded favorable terms from railroads and shipping lines. Apart from the settled districts in California and scattered outposts, the vast inland region was populated by Native Americans: among them the Great Plains tribes – Sioux and Blackfoot, Pawnee and Cheyenne – and the Indian cultures of the Southwest, including Apache, Navajo, and Hopi. Yet in 1900 the region’s percentage of the nation’s industrial base remained about what it had been in 1860. Luther Burbank in California produced scores of new fruits and vegetables; in Wisconsin, Stephen Babcock devised a test for determining the butterfat content of milk; at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, the African-American scientist George Washington Carver found hundreds of new uses for the peanut, sweet potato, and soybean. it革命がもたらす社会－アメリカ経済をモデルとして－ 苧野佐弥香 はじめに 21 世紀の経済・産業を活性化するかぎとしてのit(1)が注目されている。ただ、注意しな ければならないのは、it は単に経済・産業の活性化の一要因ではない。it は、経済や社会 アメリカは何故今世界一の国になったのか、その原因が知りたいです。・私の推測では、建国してからまだ歴史が浅く、古い体制にとらわれず、政策がとれる点。・様々な人種が存在するので、それぞれが納得できる合理的で、効率的な制度が 筆者がこれまで調査してきたアメリカ西海岸地域の 4 つの日本人街に適用して検証し，モデルの有効性 と限界を確認するともに，個々の事例が示すモデル からのずれが生ずる要因を考察することを試みた。 ii. Du Bois, wanted to challenge segregation through political action. The U.S. government thus insisted as a matter of principle upon equality of commercial privileges for all nations. It left the United States exercising control or influence over islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific. The last decades of the 19th century were a period of imperial expansion for the United States. Most reformers believed the Native American should be assimilated into the dominant culture. The same law also made the island officially a U.S. territory and gave its people American citizenship. アメリカ人は「金持ちは優れているから金持ちなので、任せておけば良い」と考えている。 田中角栄という汚職で逮捕された元首相が居たが、アメリカの政治家は全員が田中角栄です。 Soon aggressive individual businessmen began to mark out industrial domains for themselves. Easy and cheap to mine, remarkably free of chemical impurities, Mesabi ore could be processed into steel of superior quality at about one‑tenth the previously prevailing cost. The war with Spain was swift and decisive. Sheep herders had found their way to the valleys and mountain slopes. Puerto Rico was an important foothold in a Caribbean area that was becoming increasingly important as the United States contemplated a Central American canal. When the government of Queen Liliuokalani announced its intention to end foreign influence in 1893, American businessmen joined with influential Hawaiians to depose her. Started during the Civil War, the trend gathered momentum after the 1870s, as businessmen began to fear that overproduction would lead to declining prices and falling profits. Western Union, dominant in telegraphy, was followed by the Bell Telephone System and eventually by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. 関心分野は、ライフプランに関する意識調査や最新の金融商品・サービスなど。, 動画を見てクイズ＆アンケートに回答でもれなく5ポイント！さらに抽選で1,000ポイント当たる！, リーマンショックで株価はどのくらい下落したの？コロナショックでどのようになっていくのか. This policy, however well-intentioned, proved disastrous, since it allowed more plundering of Native-American lands. In these three decades, Philadelphia and Baltimore, Maryland, doubled in population; Kansas City, Missouri, and Detroit, Michigan, grew fourfold; Cleveland, Ohio, sixfold; Chicago, tenfold. He headed west to the young prairie town of Chicago, where he set up a factory – and by 1860 sold a quarter of a million reapers. なぜ北アメリカのように発展しなかったんだ？ メキシコの名無しさん. Many Americans, including influential figures such as Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Elihu Root, felt that to safeguard its own interests, the United States had to stake out spheres of economic influence as well. When Alaska became the 49th state in 1959, it replaced Texas as geographically the largest state in the Union. 現在日本は、世界でもトップクラスの経済力を誇り、gdpも世界上位に位置しています。 しかし、世界の中でも圧倒的な経済力を誇るのがアメリカです。 アメリカの大きな経済は、日本だけではなく、世界においても多大な影響力を与えており、決して無視することはできません。 アメリカで暮らす人に多い傾向にある肥満問題は、健康不安とともに大きな社会問題に発展しています。単なる肥満に加え、病的肥満と呼ばれる人口も増えており、それにともなう疾患も増えています。アメリカでの食生活の何がいけないのでしょうか？ The Sherman Antitrust Act, passed in 1890, forbade all combinations in restraint of interstate trade and provided several methods of enforcement with severe penalties. In 1887 President Grover Cleveland signed the Interstate Commerce Act, which forbade excessive charges, pools, rebates, and rate discrimination. The iron industry moved westward as geologists discovered new ore deposits, notably the great Mesabi range at the head of Lake Superior, which became one of the largest producers in the world. Ranching and the cattle drives gave American mythology its last icon of frontier culture – the cowboy. Despite gains for Japan, moreover, U.S. relations with the proud and newly assertive island nation would be intermittently difficult through the early decades of the 20th century. 経済が拡大するには、人口の増加と労働生産性の上昇が重要です。アメリカの出生率は低下していますが、移民により長期的な人口増加が見込まれます。gafaによるit技術の進展とともに、アメリカ経済拡大の要因となるでしょう。 Soon the principle of segregation by race extended into every area of Southern life, from railroads to restaurants, hotels, hospitals, and schools. Popular resentment at these practices stimulated state efforts at regulation, but the problem was national in character. Rail lines extended cheaper freight rates to large shippers by rebating a portion of the charge, thus disadvantaging small shippers. （28）アメリカ合衆国の発展 ～西部開拓と工業化～ 19世紀のアメリカ合衆国は太平洋岸へと次々に領土を拡大、西部開拓を進めました。 しかしその過程で先住民は圧迫され、また奴隷制をめぐる対立から南北戦争という内戦が起こります。 In 1936 a largely autonomous Philippine Commonwealth was established. As depicted by writers like Zane Grey and such movie actors as John Wayne, the cowboy was a powerful mythological figure, a bold, virtuous man of action. Long before this, however, the way of life of the Plains Indians had been destroyed by an expanding white population, the coming of the railroads, and the slaughter of the buffalo, almost exterminated in the decade after 1870 by the settlers’ indiscriminate hunting. With the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, the Chinese struck out against foreigners. That view was seconded by a powerful naval lobby, which called for an expanded fleet and network of overseas ports as essential to the economic and political security of the nation. 奴隷解放を宣言した北部がこの戦争に勝利し、その後北部の主導で工業が発展していきました。. The nation’s gigantic corporations were subjected to bitter attack through the 1880s by reformers such as Henry George and Edward Bellamy. Four great meat packers, chief among them Philip Armour and Gustavus Swift, established a beef trust. 労働力不足を機械化で補った. Led by such resourceful leaders as Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, the Sioux were particularly skilled at high-speed mounted warfare. Some Americans began to protest the government’s treatment of Native Americans. ２つの大戦争、すなわち南北戦争と第１次世界大戦との間に、アメリカ合衆国は成熟期に達した。5 50年にも及ばない期間に、米国は、農業を基盤とする共和国から、都市を中心とする国家に変容した。… Reflecting the interests of their Southern base, the Democrats had reverted to their pre-Civil War opposition to protection and advocacy of a “tariff for revenue only.”. Moreover, its race relations reflected not just the legacy of slavery, but what was emerging as the central theme of its history – a determination to enforce white supremacy at any cost. Nonetheless the Native-American insurgency was soon suppressed. The annual cattle drive became a regular event; for hundreds of kilometers, trails were dotted with herds moving northward. Great factories and steel mills, transcontinental railroad lines, flourishing cities, and vast agricultural holdings marked the land. In the 1890s, new companies challenged his preeminence. Most Americans were sympathetic with the Cubans, but President Cleveland was determined to preserve neutrality. In the years before 1860, 36,000 patents were granted; in the next 30 years, 440,000 patents were issued, and in the first quarter of the 20th century, the number reached nearly a million. 先行体制として封建制を有しなかった. The year of the Spanish-American War also saw the beginning of a new relationship with the Hawaiian Islands. In 1865 the frontier line generally followed the western limits of the states bordering the Mississippi River, but bulged outward beyond the eastern sections of Texas, Kansas, and Nebraska. Further curtailment of the right to vote followed. But the American farmer grew enough grain and cotton, raised enough beef and pork, and clipped enough wool not only to supply American workers and their families but also to create ever-increasing surpluses. Three years later, however, during the administration of William McKinley, the U.S. warship Maine, sent to Havana on a “courtesy visit” designed to remind the Spanish of American concern over the rough handling of the insurrection, blew up in the harbor. The frontier vanished. In 1873 the Supreme Court found that the 14th Amendment (citizenship rights not to be abridged) conferred no new privileges or immunities to protect African Americans from state power. Between two great wars – the Civil War and the First World War – the United States of America came of age. These were to serve both as educational institutions and as centers for research in scientific farming. Farmers sank their plows into the plains and closed the gap between the East and West. Officially, U.S. policy encouraged the new territories to move toward democratic self-government, a political system with which none of them had any previous experience. Catching the entire Spanish fleet at anchor in Manila Bay, he destroyed it without losing an American life. 要因を調査・考察する。 3 発表・討論・ 活動 調査・考察した内容を 発表し、認識を深めあう。 4 ブラジルの 経済発展 ブラジル経済の50年を 比較し、経済発展の要因 を考察する。 5 地域のあゆ み・文化 南アメリカ諸国の歴史 や文化を調査・考察する。 6 The war with Spain revived U.S. interest in building a canal across the isthmus of Panama, uniting the two great oceans. As a result, the acquisition of a U.S. empire was piecemeal and ambivalent. The trusts were in effect combinations of corporations whereby the stockholders of each placed stocks in the hands of trustees. The Spanish-American War, fought in 1898, marked a turning point in U.S. history. The United States’ first venture beyond its continental borders was the purchase of Alaska – sparsely populated by Inuit and other native peoples – from Russia in 1867. During the four months it lasted, not a single American reverse of any importance occurred. 北：ドイツ系、アイルランド系移民（ほとんどは白人） 南：地中海系（ヒトモ〇キ） スウェーデンの名無しさん でも北アメリカにはイタリア系移民が1700 He acquired control not only of new mills, but also of coke and coal properties, iron ore from Lake Superior, a fleet of steamers on the Great Lakes, a port town on Lake Erie, and a connecting railroad. The trend toward amalgamation extended to other fields, particularly transportation and communications. “The Civil War,” says one writer, “cut a wide gash through the history of the country; it dramatized in a stroke the changes that had begun to take place during the preceding 20 or 30 years. Chief among them were Commodore Dewey and Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who had resigned as assistant secretary of the navy to lead his volunteer regiment, the “Rough Riders,” to service in Cuba. アメリカ最初の新聞発行は1704年、ボストンで創刊された「ニュースレター」であるが、世紀半ばには20紙を超えている。 当時のアメリカで最も発展著しい都市はボルティモアである。1752年には家が25軒に住人は200人。 Most Americans were either indifferent to or indignant at this action by Secretary of State William Seward, whose critics called Alaska “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox.” But 30 years later, when gold was discovered on Alaska’s Klondike River, thousands of Americans headed north, and many of them settled in Alaska permanently. Many tribes of Native Americans – from the Utes of the Great Basin to the Nez Perces of Idaho – fought the whites at one time or another. The United States Steel Corporation, which resulted from this merger in 1901, illustrated a process under way for 30 years: the combination of independent industrial enterprises into federated or centralized companies. ...” War needs had enormously stimulated manufacturing, speeding an economic process based on the exploitation of iron, steam, and electric power, as well as the forward march of science and invention. In varying degrees, the explosion in agricultural science and technology affected farmers all over the world, raising yields, squeezing out small producers, and driving migration to industrial cities. Cattle-raising, long an important industry in Texas, flourished after the Civil War, when enterprising men began to drive their Texas longhorn cattle north across the open public land. In 1876 the last serious Sioux war erupted, when the Dakota gold rush penetrated the Black Hills. Washington offered a variety of justifications for these interventions: to establish political stability and democratic government, to provide a favorable environment for U.S. investment (often called dollar diplomacy), to secure the sea lanes leading to the Panama Canal, and even to prevent European countries from forcibly collecting debts. む第二段階への発展過程を技術面を中心に詳しくみる。3章で、アメリカ における同様の発展過程を明らかにする。最後に4章で、両国にそのよう な発展をもたらした要因を市場、資源、制度面に分けてまとめる｡ 1 1870―1913年における工業化第二段階への発展 In 1946, after World War II, the islands finally attained full independence.). By the beginning of the new century, scientists throughout the United States were at work on a wide variety of agricultural projects. The usefulness of such a canal for sea trade had long been recognized by the major commercial nations of the world; the French had begun digging one in the late 19th century but had been unable to overcome the engineering difficulties. But the Sioux of the Northern Plains and the Apache of the Southwest provided the most significant opposition to frontier advance.